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iranian cities
Tehran, as one of the largest and most populated cities of the world, has ever experienced large amount of historical ups and downs. Contrary to the time that it was no more than a small village, Tehran is today home to more than 41 millions of people. The 200-year background in being capital has caused a specific cultural structure which high sky scrapers makes any new comer face spectacularly picturesque and exquisite scenery.

Isfahan is among the ancient regions of Iran that dates from pre-Islamic era. The Isfahan fire temple, shows the ancientness of this city and had magnificent effects on the Islamic culture and history of Iran.it has been famous as the oriental science center .it gain the great fame due to sages and scientists like Sahib Ibn Ebad and Avecenna .Isfahan during its long history, became capitals of Seljuk and Safavied dynasty. Malekshah Saljuqi era, the greatest Seljuc king was the golden age of Isfahan .he choose Isfahan as his capital .he and his prime minister Khaje Nezam-ol, mulk turned it into one of the most important and beautiful cities of world .in the Safavied era shah Abbas I moved the capital from Qazvin to Isfahan about 10th century AH.it was the second golden age of the city and many buildings were erected there. Because of technical and architectural principles Isfahan had overall urban plan in Shah Abbas I period. Nowadays Isfahan is a treasury of decorative arts and Islamic architecture of Iran.it has attracted the attention of many people since many years ago. Many palaces ,caravansaries,mosques,seminaries,domes,minarets,bridges,mausoleums,churches,abbeys,bazaars,and glorious buildings make Isfahan a renowned museum town. Naghshe Jahan square is a masterpiece of Safavid art and architecture is registered among eight world relics.

The province of Fars is located in part of a wide territory called pars. The city of Shiraz has been the capital of this province since the Islamic era. The ancient land of pars has been the prosperous dwelling place of native Iranians including Elamites.persians were the first community that resided in Fars after the great migration of Aryans to the plateau of Iran. Persians have resided there since three thousand years ago and founded the first civilization of the region. Pasargadae became the capital of Achaemenids after Cyrus the great defeated Medes. The giant complex of Persepolis was constructed by Darius the great Pasargadae and Persepolis were capitals of the vast empire of Achaemenids for a long time. The royal road that was the only road joining shush and other cities of Khuzestan passed through the plain of Shiraz .the provinces of Fars is a precious treasury of historical relics, and culture of Iran. Many remains in Pasargadae, Persepolis, Naqsh-e Rajab, Naghshe Rostam, Bishapur, Sarvestan, Firuz Abad, and Tang-e Chogan show the glory of Fars and endless interest of ancient kings toward this land.

Yazd has a history of over 5,000 years, dating back to the time of the Median empire, when it was known as Ysatis or Issatis. The present city name, however, is derived from Yazdegerd I, a Sassanid ruler of Persia. The city was definitely a Zoroastrian center during Sassanid times. After the Arab conquest of Iran, many Zoroastrians migrated to Yazd from neighboring provinces. By paying a levy, Yazd was allowed to remain Zoroastrian even after its conquest, and Islam only gradually became the dominant religion in the city. Yazd has a history of over 5,000 years, dating back to the time of the Median empire, when it was known as Ysatis or Issatis. The present city name, however, is derived from Yazdegerd I, a Sassanid ruler of Persia. The city was definitely a Zoroastrian center during Sassanid times. After the Arab conquest of Iran, many Zoroastrians migrated to Yazd from neighboring provinces. By paying a levy, Yazd was allowed to remain Zoroastrian even after its conquest, and Islam only gradually became the dominant religion in the city. yazd city is located 270 km southeast of Isfahan ,because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd has a unique architecture, its known as "city of windcatchers" It is also very well known for its Zoroastrian fire temples, Ab Anbars, Qanats, yakhchals .

Ardabil is in the northwest of the country, bordering the republic of Azerbaijan, zanjan, and Gilan.many tourists come to the region for its cool climate during the hot summer months. The winters are bitterly cold; Sabalan Mountain with coldest province in Iran has green forests. Neighboring the Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan, the city is of great political and economic significance. The province has been blessed with splendid natural beauty and numerous sights. The natural features of the province of Ardabil are mentioned in the Avesta, according to which Zoroaster was born by the river Aras and wrote his book in the Sabalan Mountains. During the Islamic conquest of Iran, Ardabil was the largest city in Azarbaijan, and remained so until the Mongol invasion period. Ardabil is the seat of the sanctuary and tomb of Sheikh Safi ad-Din, eponym of the Safavid Dynasty. Many hot springs, the mineral springs of Ardabil are Beele-Darreh, Sareyn, Sardabeh and Booshloo, which are famed throughout Iran for their medicinal qualities. It also has many beauty lakes: the largest of which are Ne'or, Shoorabil Lake.

Tabriz is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan ,located in the Quru River valley, between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 meters (4,430 and 5,250 ft) above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometers (37 miles) to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz is considered a summer resort. there are numerous monuments remaining until now, which include: Saat tower, The Grand Bazaar, Iron Age museum, Amir Nezam House (Qajar museum), Constitution House of Tabriz, Measure museum of Tabriz,Behnam House, Qari Bridge, Azerbaijan Museum, Azerbaijan Museum, Shah-goli park, Saint Mary Church of Tabriz, Chay kenar (river side) at night, Seyed Hamzeh shrine and mosque.

It is the largest and most developed city and the most important city in the southeast of Iran. Kerman is famous for its long history and strong cultural heritage. The city is home to many historic mosques and Zoroastrian fire temples. Kerman is also on the recent list of the world's 1000 cleanest cities. Kerman became capital city of Iranian dynasties several times during its history. It is located on a large, flat plain, 800 km south-east of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The city's many districts are surrounded by mountains that bring variety to Kerman's year-round weather pattern. The northern part of the city is located in an arid desert area, while the highland of the southern part of the city enjoys a more moderate climate. The mean elevation of the city is about 1,755 m above sea level. Because it is located close to the Kavir-e lut, Kerman has hot summers, and in the spring it often has violent sand storms. Otherwise, its climate is relatively cool. The history of human settlements in the territory of Kerman dates back to the 4th millennium BC. This area is considered as one of the ancient regions of Iran and valuable historical vestiges have been discovered here. Jiroft is an example, where a previously unknown settlement dating back to around 2500 BC has been established by archeologists. Kerman has an abundance of historical sites and landmarks, 283 in total, according to Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization. Ancient abandoned citadels such as Arg-e Bam and Rayen Castle have been preserved in the desert for 2,000 years.

Its located in western part of Iran ,Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate, Kermanshah is the largest Kurdish-speaking city in Iran, Kermanshah has a climate which is heavily influenced by the proximity of the Zagros mountains, classified as a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, Kermanshah experiences rather cold winters and there are usually rainfalls in fall and spring.Kermanshah sights include Kohneh Bridge, Behistun Inscription, Taghbostan, Temple of Anahita, Dinavar, Ganj Dareh, Essaqwand Rock Tombs, Sorkh Deh chamber tomb, Malek Tomb, Hulwan, Median dakhmeh (Darbad, Sahneh), Parav cave, Do-Ashkaft Cave, Tekyeh Moaven al-molk, Dokan Davood Inscription, Sar Pol-e-Zahab, Tagh e gara, Patagh pass, Sarab Niloufar, Ghoori Ghale Cave, Khajeh Barookh's House, Chiyajani Tappe, Statue of Herakles in Behistun complex, Emad al doleh Mosque, Tekyeh Biglarbeigi, Hunters cave, Jamé Mosque of Kermanshah, Godin Tepe, Bas relief of Gotarzes II of Parthia, and Anobanini bas relief.

Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities and one of the oldest in the world. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE. Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level. The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kilometres (220 miles) southwest of Tehran. The main symbols of this city are the inscriptions of Gangenameh, Shir Sangi, the Shrine of Esther and Mordecai, Alavian Dome, Bu-Ali Sina (Avicenna, Babataher Mausoleums. In the suburbs of Hamedan there are ark natural eye-catching sites including the famous caves of Ali Sadr, Ghaleh Joogh, and Hizadj. One of the interesting sites in Hamedan is the Lalejin Village. This village is the center of the pottery and ceramics industry, where many workshops are active, producing diverse earthenware products in different designs and colors. The majority of the population is Persian; however, there is a considerable Azerbaijani minority.

Khuzistan was part of the historical land of Mesopotamia (between two rivers). Due to its antiquity, this region still holds several ancient historical monuments. Ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil is a distinct monument belonging to the Elamite civilization, the foundation of which dates back to the mid 13th century BC. In archeological excavations made in Haft Tappeh, the remains of and statues of the palaces, inscriptions, and statues of the Elamite time were discovered . In Susa (Shoosh), in addition to the existence of the Shrine of Danial Nabi(Daniel the Prophet) Which is a local place of pilgrimage one canvisit the ruins of ancient Shoosh. The remaining monuments inMasjed Solayman and Shooshtar belong to the Achaemenian, Parthian, and Sassanid time, which have their own value. The old water mills of Shooshtar and brick buildings in Dezfool are samples of ancient architectural and technical skills in these cities.

Kurdistan Province is a mountainous region that can be topographically divided into a western and an eastern section at Sanandaj. As a result of its elevation and mountains, Kurdistan province has many rivers, lakes, glaciers and caves, which render it rather picturesque. Consequently, Kurdistan has always attracted a large number of tourists and fans of mountaineering, ski and water-sports.Kurdistan Province cities included: Sanandaj, Saghez, Bijar, Marivan, Ghorveh, and Baneh, hold man worth seeing and memorable sites among which Jame ' Mosque, Sanandaj Museum, Zivieh, and Kaftoo caves close to Saghez can be pointed out.

Located in 150 km (93 mi) northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin Province, it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m (5,900 ft) above sea level. The climate is cold but dry, due to its position south of the rugged Alborz range. The city of Qazvin, once the capital city of Iran during the Safavid period, holds interesting historical buildings and vestiges. The Alamoot Castle, the refuge and base of Hassan Sabah, the leader of the Ismailieh Movement, is one of the most interesting sites to visit in Qazvin province.

It lies 298 km north-west of Tehran on the main highway to Tabriz and Turkey and approximately 125 km from the Caspian Sea. In Zanjan province there are also several historical monuments like Soltanieh Dome, washhouse building, Sang Ezhdeha (Dragon Stone), and the bazaar which have considerable artistic and architectural value.

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